The Fund's investment objective is to seek a high level of current income and gains with a secondary objective of long-term capital appreciation. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in equity securities. GPIM will manage the Fund utilizing a covered call strategy developed by GPIM to seek to utilize efficiencies from the tax characteristics of the Fund's portfolio. GPIM's covered call strategy will seek to follow a dynamic rules-based methodology to obtain broadly diversified exposure to the equity markets, either through investments that replicate the economic characteristics of broadly diversified exposure to the equity markets, including exchange-traded funds or other investment funds that track equity market indices, or through investments in individual common stocks along with other securities and instruments. The Fund will have the ability to write call options on indices and/or securities which will typically be at- or out-of-the money. GPIM's strategy typically targets one-month options, although options of any strike price or maturity may be utilized.
The Fund will seek to earn income and gains through both dividends paid by on securities owned by the Fund and cash premiums received from selling options. Although the Fund will receive premiums from the options written, by writing a covered call option, the Fund forgoes any potential increase in value of the underlying securities above the strike price specified in an option contract through the expiration date of the option. To the extent GPIM's strategy seeks to achieve broad equity exposure through a portfolio of common stocks, the Fund would hold a diversified portfolio of stocks, whereas to the extent GPIM's equity exposure strategy is implemented through investment in broad-based equity exchange-traded funds and other investment funds or instruments, the Fund's portfolio may comprise fewer holdings.
For periodic shareholder reports and recent fund-specific filings, please visit the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) website via the following: http://www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/browse-edgar?action=getcompany&CIK=0001310709
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
How will GPIM manage the Fund's Portfolio?
Pursuant to the Interim Sub-Advisory Agreement, GPIM will be responsible for the management of the Fund's portfolio, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. The Fund will continue to seek its primary investment objective of seeking a high level of current income and gains with a secondary objective of long-term capital appreciation. While the Fund currently seeks to achieve its investment objective through a long-short strategy and an opportunistic covered call writing strategy, GPIM will manage the Fund utilizing a covered call strategy developed by GPIM to seek to utilize efficiencies from the tax characteristics of the Fund's portfolio. As of June 22, 2010, selling securities short will no longer be a principal investment strategy of the Fund.
GPIM's covered call strategy will seek to follow a dynamic rules-based methodology to obtain broadly diversified exposure to the equity markets, either through investments that replicate the economic characteristics of broadly diversified exposure to the equity markets, including exchange-traded funds or other investment funds that track equity market indices, or through investments in individual common stocks along with other securities and instruments. The Fund will have the ability to write call options on indices and/or securities which will typically be at- or out-of-the money. GPIM's strategy typically targets one-month options, although options of any strike price or maturity may be utilized. The Fund will seek to earn income and gains through both dividends paid by on securities owned by the Fund and cash premiums received from selling options. Although the Fund will receive premiums from the options written, by writing a covered call option, the Fund forgoes any potential increase in value of the underlying securities above the strike price specified in an option contract through the expiration date of the option. To the extent GPIM's strategy seeks to achieve broad equity exposure through a portfolio of common stocks, the Fund would hold a diversified portfolio of stocks, whereas to the extent GPIM's equity exposure strategy is implemented through investment in broad-based equity exchange-traded funds and other investment funds or instruments, the Fund's portfolio may comprise fewer holdings. In current market conditions, GPIM initially expects to seek to obtain exposure to equity markets by investing primarily in a portfolio of exchange-traded funds.
In connection with the implementation of GPIM's strategy, the Fund intends to utilize financial leverage. The goal of the use of financial leverage would be to enhance common shareholder value, consistent with the Fund's investment objective, and provide superior risk-adjusted returns for common shareholders. The Fund may utilize financial leverage up to the limits imposed by the 1940 Act. The Fund's use of financial leverage is intended to be flexible in nature and will be monitored and adjusted, as appropriate, by Claymore and GPIM. Under current market conditions, the Fund initially intends to utilize financial leverage in an amount not to exceed 30% of the Fund's total assets (including the proceeds of such financial leverage) at the time utilized. The Fund expects to employ financial leverage through the issuance of senior securities represented by indebtedness, including through bank borrowing by the Fund or issuance by the Fund of notes, commercial paper or other forms of debt.
In addition to the change in the Fund's investment strategy discussed above, the Fund adopted the following non-fundamental investment policy. Under normal market conditions, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in equity securities. If this policy is changed, the Fund will provide shareholders at least 60 days' notice before implementation of the change. Investments in exchange-traded funds and other investment funds which invest primarily in equity securities and in other instruments that provide exposure to equity markets will be included as investments in equity securities for the purpose of this policy.
Is there any change in the total management fees paid by the Fund?
Yes. The investment advisory fee rate paid by the Fund will be reduced. The Fund previously paid to the Adviser an investment advisory fee at an annual rate equal to 1.00% of the average daily value of the Fund's "total managed assets" (as defined in the investment advisory agreement). Effective April 20, 2010, the Adviser and the Fund contractually agreed to a permanent 0.10% reduction in the advisory fee, such that the Fund pays to the Adviser an investment advisory fee at an annual rate equal to 0.90% of the average daily value of the Fund's "total managed assets." In addition, the Adviser and the Fund contractually agreed that commencing as of the date of the Interim Sub-Advisory Agreement and continuing during the term of the Interim Sub-Advisory Agreement and New Sub-Advisory Agreement and for so long as the investment sub-adviser of the Fund shall be an affiliated person of the Adviser, the Adviser shall waive an additional 0.10% of the advisory fee, such that the Fund will pay to the Adviser an investment advisory fee at an annual rate equal to 0.80% of the average daily value of the Fund's "total managed assets." The Adviser pays the investment sub-advisory fee out of the advisory fee received by the Adviser. The Adviser previously paid to Analytic a sub-advisory fee equal to 0.50% of the Fund's "total managed assets." Pursuant to the Interim Sub-Advisory Agreement and the New Sub-Advisory Agreement, the Adviser will pay to GPIM a sub-advisory fee equal to 0.40% of the Fund's "total managed assets."
What is the frequency of distributions?
Distributions will be declared and paid quarterly.
Describe the differences between closed-end and open-end funds?
An open-end fund may be purchased or sold at NAV. An open-end fund will issue new shares when an investor wants to purchases shares in the fund and will sell assets to redeem shares when an investor wants to sell shares. When selling an open-end fund the price the seller receives is established at the close of the market when the NAV is calculated. Unlike the open-end fund, a closed-end fund has a limited number of shares outstanding and trades on an exchange at the market price based on supply and demand. An investor may purchase or sell shares at market price while the exchange is open. The common shares may trade at a discount or premium to the NAV.
What does the "Ex-Div" or the "Ex-Dividend" date refer to?
Every quarter the Fund pays dividends and those investors who purchase the Fund before the ex-dividend date will receive the next dividend distribution. Investors who purchase on or after the ex-dividend date will not receive the next dividend distribution. The value of the dividend is subtracted from the Fund's NAV on the ex-dividend date each quarter. So when the NAV is reported with an "ex-div" behind it, this means that the amount of the dividend has already been taken out of the NAV.
What is the DRIP and how does it work?
DRIP is the Dividend Reinvestment Plan. The number of shares of Common Stock distributed to participants in the Plan in lieu of a cash dividend is determined in the following manner. Whenever the market price per share of the Fund’s Common Stock is equal to or exceeds the net asset value per share on the valuation date, participants in the Plan will be issued new shares valued at the higher of net asset value or 95% of the then-current market value. Otherwise, the Administrator will buy shares of the Common Stock in the open market, on the NYSE or elsewhere.
The Fund’s prospectus offers a more thorough discussion of the risks and considerations associated with an investment in the Fund. Such risks and considerations include, but are not limited to: Investment Risk, Equity Risk; Short Sale Risk; Options Risk, Management Risk; Tax Treatment of Distributions; Derivatives Risk; Counterparty Risk; Credit Risk; Income Risk; Medium- and Smaller-Company Risk; Focused Investment Risk; Interest Rate Risk; Liquidity Risk; Market Disruption and Geopolitical Risk; Other Investment Companies Risk; and Inflation/Deflation Risk.
GPM Fund Manager
Guggenheim Partners Investment Management, LLC, a subsidiary of Guggenheim Partners, LLC ("Guggenheim"), is an investment manager specializing in innovative investment strategies that aim to add alpha relative to benchmarks in both up and down markets. GPIM's investment philosophy is predicated upon the belief that thorough research and independent thought are rewarded with performance that has the potential to outperform benchmark indexes with both lower volatility and lower correlation of returns over time as compared to such benchmark indexes. GPIM manages more than $29 billion in investments for a mix of individuals, family offices, endowments, foundations, insurance companies and other institutions. Guggenheim Funds is also a subsidiary of Guggenheim and is an affiliate of GPIM. Guggenheim is a diversified financial services firm with wealth management, capital markets, investment management and proprietary investing businesses, whose clients are a mix of individuals, family offices, endowments, foundations, insurance companies and other institutions that have entrusted Guggenheim with the supervision of more than $100 billion of assets.
B. Scott Minerd - Chairman of Investments and Global Chief Investment Officer
Mr. Minerd is Chairman of Investments and Global Chief Investment Officer at Guggenheim. Mr. Minerd guides the firm’s investment strategies and oversees client accounts across a broad range of fixed-income and equity securities. Previously, Mr. Minerd was a Managing Director with Credit Suisse First Boston in charge of trading and risk management for the Fixed Income Credit Trading Group. In this position, he was responsible for the corporate bond, preferred stock, money markets, U.S. government agency and sovereign debt, derivatives securities, structured debt and interest rate swaps trading business units. Prior to that, Mr. Minerd was Morgan Stanley’s London based European Capital Markets Products Trading and Risk Manager responsible for Eurobonds, Euro-MTNs, domestic European Bonds, FRNs, derivative securities and money market products in 12 European currencies and Asian markets. Mr. Minerd has also held capital markets positions with Merrill Lynch and Continental Bank. Prior to that, he was a Certified Public Accountant and worked for the public accounting firm of Price Waterhouse. Mr. Minerd is a member of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s Investor Advisory Committee on Financial Markets, helping advise the NY Fed President and senior management at the bank about the current financial markets and ways the public and private sectors can better understand and mitigate systematic risks. Mr. Minerd also works with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), advising on research and analysis of private sector infrastructure investment, and is a contributing member of the World Economic Forum (WEF). He is a regularly featured guest and contributor to leading financial media outlets, including The Wall Street Journal, The Financial Times, Bloomberg, and CNBC, where he shares insights on today’s financial climate. Mr. Minerd holds a B.S. degree in Economics from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and has completed graduate work at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business and the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.
Anne B. Walsh, CFA - Senior Managing Director, Assistant Chief Investment Officer, Fixed Income
Ms. Walsh joined Guggenheim in 2007 and is head of the Portfolio Construction Group (“PCG”) where she oversees more than $100 billion in fixed income investments including Agencies, Credit, Municipals, Residential Mortgage Backed Securities, Commercial Mortgage Backed Securities and Asset Backed Securities across several Guggenheim affiliates. The PCG is responsible for sector allocation, risk management and hedging strategies for client portfolios, and conveying Guggenheim’s macro-economic outlook to Portfolio Managers and fixed income Sector Specialists. Ms. Walsh specializes in liability driven portfolio management. With more than 29 years in the investment management industry, including roles as a money manager and as a selector of money managers, Ms. Walsh is well suited to understand the needs of institutional clients and how to address them. Prior to joining Guggenheim, Ms. Walsh served as Chief Investment Officer at Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated, a recognized leader in the global life reinsurance industry. Prior to joining RG A in 2000, Ms. Walsh served as Vice President and Senior Investment Consultant for Zurich Scudder Investments. Earlier, she held roles at Lincoln Investment Management and American Bankers Insurance Group. Ms. Walsh received her BSBA and MBA from Auburn University and her J.D. from the University of Miami School of Law. She has earned the right to use the Chartered Financial Analyst® designation and is a member of the CFA Institute.
Farhan Sharaff - Assistant Chief Investment Officer
Mr. Sharaff joined the Sub-Adviser in 2009 and is the Assistant Chief Investment Officer, Equities. Mr. Sharaff has more than 20 years of experience in investment research and investment management. Prior to joining the Sub-Adviser, he was a Partner and Chief Investment Officer at MJX Capital Advisors, a wealth management firm focused on providing advice and investment management for its clients, especially in the traditional and alternative asset classes. Prior to that, Mr. Sharaff served as the global Chief Investment Officer at CIGNA Corporation, Zurich Scudder Investments and Citigroup. In all of the above engagements, Mr. Sharaff was responsible for research, investment management, product development and investment risk management. He was also a member of the business management teams at Citigroup and Zurich Scudder. Mr. Sharaff has a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Aston (U.K.) and an MBA in Finance from the Manchester Business School (U.K.). In addition, Mr. Sharaff sits on boards for CITIC Capital Asset Management, Clarfeld Financial Advisors, and Transparent Value Trust.
Jayson Flowers - Managing Director
Mr. Flowers joined the Sub-Adviser in 2001, and serves as the Managing Director, heading Equity and Derivative Strategies. Mr. Flowers has more than 15 years experience in the financial markets with concentration in risk management and trading across various sectors of the capital structure. His investment experience ranges in expertise from structured product investments and asset backed securities, to trading U.S. Government agencies, foreign sovereign debt, commodities, indexed futures, derivative and global equity arbitrage. Prior to working for the Sub-Adviser, Mr. Flowers was a co-founder and partner of Adventure Capital, a boutique venture capital and merchant banking company. Previously Mr. Flowers was at Credit Suisse First Boston, Dominick & Dominick Inc., and Coopers & Lybrand. Mr. Flowers holds a BA in Economics from Union College.
Daniel Cheeseman - Portfolio Manager
Mr. Cheeseman joined the Sub-Adviser in 2011 as a Senior Research Analyst covering Equity Derivatives and Liquid Alternatives. Through the lens of derivatives, he researches and implements the firm’s macroeconomic views in the derivative markets; designing new systematic, absolute return strategies; and covering cross asset derivative trends. For six years prior to joining Guggenheim Partners, he was a research analyst covering equity and volatility derivatives at Merrill Lynch and Morgan Stanley. Mr. Cheeseman holds an MS in Mathematical Finance from the Courant Institute at NYU and BAs in Mathematics and Economics from the University of California, San Diego.
RISKS AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objectives. The value of the Fund will fluctuate with the value of the underlying securities. Historically, closed-end funds often trade at a discount to their net asset value. Risk is inherent in all investing, including the loss of your entire principal. Therefore, before investing you should consider the following risks carefully.
Equity Securities and Related Market Risk. The market price of common stocks and other equity securities may go up or down, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. Equity securities may decline in value due to factors affecting equity securities markets generally, particular industries represented in those markets or the issuer itself. The values of equity securities may decline due to general market conditions which are not specifically related to a particular company, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates or adverse investor sentiment generally. They may also decline due to factors which affect a particular industry or industries, such as labor shortages or increased production costs and competitive conditions within an industry. The value of equity securities may also decline for a number of other reasons which directly relate to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage, the issuer’s historical and prospective earnings, the value of its assets and reduced demand for its goods and services. Equity securities generally have greater price volatility than bonds and other debt securities.
Other Investment Companies Risk. The Fund may invest in securities of other open-or closed-end investment companies, including ETFs. As a stockholder in an investment company, the Fund will bear its ratable share of that investment company’s expenses, and would remain subject to payment of the Fund’s investment management fees with respect to the assets so invested. Shareholders would therefore be subject to duplicative expenses to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies. In addition, these other investment companies may utilize financial leverage, in which case an investment would subject the Fund to additional risks associated with leverage.
Options Risk. There are various risks associated with the Fund’s covered call option strategy. The purchaser of an index option written by the Fund has the right to any appreciation in the cash value of the index over the strike price on the expiration date. Therefore, as the writer of an index call option, the Fund forgoes the opportunity to profit from increases in the index over the strike price of the option. However, the Fund has retained the risk of loss (net of premiums received) should the price of the Fund’s portfolio securities decline. Similarly, as the writer of
a call option on an individual security held in the Fund’s portfolio, the Fund forgoes, during the option’s life, the opportunity to profit from increases in the market value of the security covering the call option above the sum of the premium and the strike price of the call but has retained the risk of loss (net of premiums received) should the price of the underlying security decline.
The value of options written by the Fund, which will be priced daily, will be affected by, among other factors, changes in the value of underlying securities (including those comprising an index), changes in the dividend rates of underlying securities, changes in interest rates, changes in the actual or perceived volatility of the stock market and underlying securities and the remaining time to an option’s expiration. The value of an option also may be adversely affected if the market for the option is reduced or becomes less liquid.
There are significant differences between the securities and options markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between these markets, causing a given transaction not to achieve its objectives. A decision as to whether, when and how to use options involves the exercise of skill and judgment, and even a well conceived transaction may be unsuccessful to some degree because of market behavior or unexpected events. In the case of index options, GPIM will attempt to maintain for the Fund written call options positions on equity indexes whose
price movements, taken in the aggregate, are closely correlated with the price movements of common stocks and other securities held in the Fund’s equity portfolio. However, this strategy involves significant risk that the changes in value of the indexes underlying the Fund’s written call options positions will not correlate closely with changes in the market value of securities held by the Fund. To the extent that there is a lack of correlation, movements in the indexes underlying the options positions may result in losses to the Fund, which may more than offset any gains received by the Fund from options premiums. In these and other circumstances, the Fund may be required to sell portfolio securities to satisfy its obligations as the writer of an index call option, when it would not otherwise choose to do so, or may choose to sell portfolio securities to realize gains to supplement Fund distributions. Such sales would involve transaction costs borne by the Fund and may also result in realization of taxable capital gains, including short-term capital gains taxed at ordinary income tax rates, and may adversely impact the Fund’s after-tax returns.
There can be no assurance that a liquid market will exist when the Fund seeks to close out an option position. Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening transactions or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations
on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or The Options Clearing Corporation (the “OCC”) may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options). If trading were discontinued, the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist. However, outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the OCC as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms. In the event that the Fund were unable to close out a call option that it had written on a portfolio security, it would not be able to sell the underlying security unless the option expired without exercise. To the extent that the Fund owns unlisted (or “over-the-counter”) options, the Fund’s ability to terminate these options may be more limited than with exchange-traded options and may involve enhanced risk that counterparties participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.
The hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the securities held by the Fund are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets. Additionally, the exercise price of an option may be adjusted downward before the option’s expiration as a result of the occurrence of certain corporate events affecting underlying securities, such as extraordinary dividends, stock splits, mergers or other extraordinary distributions or events. A reduction in the exercise price of an option might reduce the Fund’s capital appreciation potential on underlying securities held by the Fund.
The Fund’s use of purchased put options on equity indexes as a hedging strategy would involve certain risks similar to those of written call options, including that the strategy may not work as intended due to a lack of correlation between changes in value of the index underlying the put option and changes in the market value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. Further, a put option acquired by the Fund and not sold prior to expiration will expire worthless if the cash value
of the index or market value of the underlying security at expiration exceeds the exercise price of the option, thereby causing the Fund to lose its entire investment in the option.
The Fund’s options transactions will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which the options are traded. These limitations govern the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert, regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities or are held or written in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which the Fund may write or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of GPIM. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose other sanctions.
Other Derivatives Risk. Derivatives are subject to a number of risks such as liquidity risk, equity securities risk, issuer risk, interest rate risk, credit risk, leveraging risk, counterparty risk, management risk and, if applicable, medium and smaller company risk. They also involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuation, the risk of ambiguous documentation and the risk that changes in the value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with an underlying asset, interest rate or index. Suitable derivative transactions may not be available in all circumstances and there can be no assurance that the Fund will engage in these transactions to reduce exposure to other risks when that would be beneficial. The use of derivatives transactions may result in losses greater than if they had not been used, may require the Fund to sell or purchase portfolio securities at inopportune times or for prices other than current market values, may limit the amount of appreciation the Fund can realize on an investment or may cause the
Fund to hold a security that it might otherwise sell. Additionally, amounts paid by the Fund as premiums and cash or other assets held in margin accounts with respect to derivatives transactions are not otherwise available to the Fund for investment purposes.
Proposed legislation regarding regulation of the financial sector could change the way in which derivative instruments are regulated and/or traded. Among the legislative proposals are requirements that derivative instruments be traded on regulated exchanges and cleared through central clearinghouses, limitations on derivative trading by certain financial institutions, reporting of derivatives transactions, regulation of derivatives dealers and imposition of additional collateral requirements. There can be no assurance Such regulation, if enacted, may impact the availability, liquidity and cost of derivative instruments. There can be no assurance that such legislation or regulation will not have a material adverse effect on the Fund or will not impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective.
The Fund may enter into derivatives transactions that may in certain circumstances produce effects similar to leverage and expose the Fund to related risks. See “Leverage Risk” below.
Counterparty Risk. The Fund will be subject to risk with respect to the counterparties to the derivative contracts purchased or sold by the Fund. If a counterparty becomes bankrupt or otherwise fails to perform its obligations under a derivative contract due to financial difficulties, the Fund may experience significant delays in obtaining any recovery under the derivative contract in a bankruptcy or other reorganization proceeding. The Fund may obtain only a limited recovery or may obtain no recovery in these circumstances.
Medium and Smaller Company Risk. The general risks associated with the types of securities in which the Fund invests are particularly pronounced for securities issued by companies with medium and smaller market capitalizations. These companies may have limited product lines, markets or financial resources or they may depend on a few key employees. As a result, they may be subject to greater levels of credit, market and issuer risk. Securities of medium and smaller companies may trade less frequently and in lesser volume than more widely held securities and their values may fluctuate more sharply than other securities.
Financial Leverage Risk. Use of financial leverage creates an opportunity for increased income and capital appreciation but, at the same time, creates special risks. There can be no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be utilized or will be successful. Financial leverage is a speculative technique that exposes the Fund to greater risk and increased costs than if it were not implemented. Increases and decreases in the value of the Fund’s portfolio will be magnified when the Fund uses financial leverage. As a result, financial leverage may cause greater changes
in the Fund’s net asset value and returns than if financial leverage had not been used. The Fund will also have to pay interest on its indebtedness, if any, which may reduce the Fund’s return. This interest expense may be greater than the Fund’s return on the underlying investment, which would negatively affect the performance of the Fund.
During the time in which the Fund is utilizing financial leverage, the amount of the fees paid to the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser for investment advisory services will be higher than if the Fund did not utilize financial leverage because the fees paid will be calculated based on the Fund’s Managed Assets, including proceeds of financial leverage. This may create a conflict of interest between the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser and common shareholders. Common shareholders bear the portion of the investment advisory fee attributable to the assets purchased with the proceeds of financial leverage, which means that common shareholders effectively bear the entire advisory fee. In order to manage this conflict of interest, any use of financial leverage must be approved by the Board of Trustees and the Board of Trustees will receive regular reports from the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser regarding the Fund’s use of financial leverage and
the effect of financial leverage on the management of the Fund’s portfolio and the performance of the Fund.
Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risks that the interest income earned on the investment of the proceeds will be less than the interest expense and Fund expenses, that the market value of the securities sold by the Fund may decline below the price at which the Fund is obligated to repurchase such securities and that the securities may not be returned to the Fund.
Foreign Investment Risk. The Fund’s investments in ADRs and other securities of foreign issuers involve special risks. For example, the value of these investments may decline in response to unfavorable political and legal developments, unreliable or untimely information, or economic and financial instability. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign
company than a U.S. company. Foreign companies are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial standards and requirements comparable to those standards applicable to U.S. companies. Similar foreign investment risks may apply to futures contracts and other derivative instruments in which the Fund invests that trade on foreign exchanges. The value of derivative and other instruments denominated in or that pay revenues in foreign currencies may fluctuate based on changes in the value of those currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, and a decline in applicable foreign exchange rates could reduce the value of such instruments held by the Fund. Foreign settlement procedures also may involve additional risks.
Inflation/Deflation Risk. Inflation risk is the risk that the value of assets or income from the Fund’s investments will be worth less in the future as inflation decreases the value of payments at future dates. As inflation increases, the real value of the Fund’s portfolio could decline. Deflation risk is the risk that prices throughout the economy decline over time. Deflation may have an adverse effect on the creditworthiness of issuers and may make issuer default more likely, which may result in a decline in the value of the Fund’s portfolio.
Management Risk. The Fund is subject to management risk because it has an actively managed portfolio. The Sub-Adviser will apply investment techniques and risk analysis in making investment decisions for the Fund, but there can be no guarantee that these will produce the desired results. The Fund will invest in securities that the Sub-Adviser believes are undervalued or mispriced as a result of recent economic events, such as market dislocations, the inability of other investors to evaluate risk and forced selling. If the Sub-Adviser’s perception of the value of a security is incorrect, your investment in the Fund may lose value.
Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund’s annual portfolio turnover rate may vary greatly from year to year. Portfolio turnover rate is not considered a limiting factor in the execution of investment decisions for the Fund. A higher portfolio turnover rate results in correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transactional expenses that are borne by the Fund. High portfolio turnover may result in an increased realization of net short-term capital gains by the Fund which, when distributed to shareholders, will be taxable as ordinary income. Additionally,
in a declining market, portfolio turnover may create realized capital losses.
Recent Market Developments. Global financial markets have experienced periods of unprecedented turmoil. The debt and equity capital markets in the United States were negatively impacted by significant write-offs in the financial services sector relating to subprime mortgages and the re-pricing of credit risk in the broader market, among other things. These events, along with the deterioration of the housing market, the failure of major financial institutions and the concerns that other financial institutions as well as the global financial system were also experiencing severe economic distress materially and adversely impacted the broader financial and credit markets and reduced the availability of debt and equity capital for the market as a whole and financial firms in particular. These events contributed to severe market volatility and caused severe liquidity strains in the credit markets. Volatile financial markets can expose the Fund to greater market and liquidity risk and potential difficulty in valuing portfolio instruments held by the Fund. The third and fourth quarters of 2009 witnessed more stabilized economic activity as expectations for an economic recovery increased. However, risks to a robust resumption of growth persist: a weak consumer weighed down by too much debt and increasing joblessness, the growing size of the federal budget deficit and national debt, and the threat of inflation. A return to unfavorable economic conditions or sustained economic slowdown may place downward pressure on equity markets, which in turn, may adversely affect the Fund. The current financial market situation, as well as various social, political, and psychological tensions in the United States and around the world, may continue to contribute to increased market volatility, may have long-term effects on the U.S. and worldwide financial markets; and may cause further economic uncertainties or deterioration in the United States and worldwide. The prolonged continuation or further deterioration of the current U.S. and global economic downturn could adversely impact the Fund’s portfolio. The Sub-Adviser does not know how long the financial markets will continue to be affected by these events and cannot predict the effects of these or similar events in the future on the U.S. economy and securities markets in the Fund’s portfolio.
Government Intervention in Financial Markets. The instability in the financial markets discussed above has led the U.S. Government to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and segments of the financial markets that have experienced extreme volatility, and in some cases a lack of liquidity. Federal, state, and other governments, their regulatory agencies, or self regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The long-term implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.
Legislation Risk. At any time after the date of this Prospectus, legislation may be enacted that could negatively affect the assets of the Fund or the issuers of such assets. Changing approaches to regulation may have a negative impact on the Fund entities in which the Fund invests. Legislation or regulation may also change the way in which the Fund itself is regulated. There can be no assurance that future legislation, regulation or deregulation will not have a material adverse effect on the Fund or will not impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective.
Market Disruption and Geopolitical Risk. The aftermath of the war in Iraq and the continuing occupation of Iraq, instability in the Middle East and terrorist attacks in the United States and around the world have contributed to increased market volatility, may have long-term effects on the U.S. and worldwide financial markets and may cause further economic uncertainties or deterioration in the United States and worldwide. The Adviser and Sub-Adviser do not know how long the financial markets will continue to be affected by these events and cannot predict the effects of these or similar events in the future on the U.S. and global economies and securities markets.